By: Zia Mahmood Minhas

Cloud Formation and Rain Precipitation

-Qur’an On Precipitation

-The Water Cycle

-Miracles of Rainfall





Cloud Formation and Rain PrecipitationIncludes water falling on Earth from skies in the form of rain, snowfall and hails. Rain is the major source of water falling on Earth from the atmosphere. Rain comes from the clouds under a well organized system devised by Allah. Clouds are of two types:
Cumulus Clouds: Small fragmented clouds that join together to form cumulus clouds. These move by the mild air currents.
cumulus fractus
Cumulonimbus Clouds: These are big size clouds and formed by joining of clouds. After joining together, the stacks of clouds then move higher in the atmosphere to cooler zones where temperature can be as low as -30 to -40 degrees Celsius. A cumulonimbus cloud can have more than 300,000 tons of water and can rise up to heights of 25000 to 30000 feet.

Lower temperature results the water being liquefied in the form of minute droplets around particles of salt and interstellar material or cosmic dust present in the atmosphere..With the rise in height the moisture reaches saturation or ‘dew point’, the clouds cannot hold the drops and results in falling on Earth in the form of rain or hail.

Qur’an On Precipitation

The subject of formation of clouds and rainfall has been discussed in Qur’an in many verses such as:

أَلَمْ تَرَ‌ أَنَّ اللَّـهَ يُزْجِي سَحَابًا ثُمَّ يُؤَلِّفُ بَيْنَهُ ثُمَّ يَجْعَلُهُ رُ‌كَامًا فَتَرَ‌ى الْوَدْقَ يَخْرُ‌جُ مِنْ خِلَالِهِ وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ

(السَّمَاءِ مِن جِبَالٍ فِيهَا مِن بَرَ‌دٍ فَيُصِيبُ بِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَصْرِ‌فُهُ عَن مَّن يَشَاءُ ۖ يَكَادُ سَنَا بَرْ‌قِهِ يَذْهَبُ بِالْأَبْصَارِ‌ ﴿٤٣

Do you not see how Allah drives the clouds, then blends them together, Then turns them into billowing masses, and you can see the rain coming down from their crevices? How He sends from the sky, from mountains therein, hailstones, with which He strike whomever He wishes? The flash of its lightening almost blinds the eyes.

(Soorah An-Noor 24:43)

وَهُوَ الَّذِي يُرْ‌سِلُ الرِّ‌يَاحَ بُشْرً‌ا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَ‌حْمَتِهِ ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَقَلَّتْ سَحَابًا ثِقَالًا سُقْنَاهُ لِبَلَدٍ مَّيِّتٍ فَأَنزَلْنَا بِهِ الْمَاءَ

(فَأَخْرَ‌جْنَا بِهِ مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَ‌اتِ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نُخْرِ‌جُ الْمَوْتَىٰ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُ‌ونَ ﴿٥٧

It is He who sends the winds softly blowing, ahead of His, mercy, until, when laden with heavy clouds, We drive them forth to a parched land, and cause water to come down, with which we bring forth all manner of fruits. Thus we will revive the dead; perhaps you will reflect.

(Soorah Al-A’raf 7:57)

(أَفَرَ‌أَيْتُمُ الْمَاءَ الَّذِي تَشْرَ‌بُونَ ﴿٦٨﴾ أَأَنتُمْ أَنزَلْتُمُوهُ مِنَ الْمُزْنِ أَمْ نَحْنُ الْمُنزِلُونَ ﴿٦٩

(لَوْ نَشَاءُ جَعَلْنَاهُ أُجَاجًا فَلَوْلَا تَشْكُرُ‌ونَ ﴿٧٠

“Have you given thought to the water you drink? Was it you who poured it down from the rain clouds, or was it Us who poured it? If We wish We could turn it into salt water. Will you not offer thanks?

(Soorah Al-Waq’iah 56:68-70)

Study of these verses reveals the following:

-Despite construction of huge dams and distributaries of water, rain fall still remains main source of water for agriculture worldwide. Allah has portrayed rainfall as His mercy on mankind and argued it as a rational for submission to will of Allah.
    -The formation of clouds and process of rainfall has been fairly dealt with. It may be noted that the process was properly studied and inferences drawn by scientists in quite recent past
Heavy Rain
The Water Cycle  
-Rain is the main source of inland water in the form of lakes, rivers and underground water which is fit for consumption for animals and irrigation. The water evaporates from saline water of oceans. It has been estimated about 10,600 million tons of water evaporates from oceans and same amount is received as precipitations. The water consumed by animals and plants is recycled into soil or atmosphere. The precipitation received either penetrates underground or flows into streams and rivers and ultimately ends up falling into oceans. This is a cycle which goes on forever and is termed as hydrological or water cycle which is drawn as below.

Miracles of Rainfall

-The clouds go up to the height where the temperature is -30 to -40 degrees Celsius. Why all the precipitation is not in the form of ice is a divine miracle. It has been scientifically proved that the water in clouds is very pure and in fine particles and the atmospheric pressure is low, hence it is not frozen even at -30 to -40 degrees.

-The drops and hails land in Earth its size that is not harmful. Otherwise it could have fallen in huge blocks of ice on Earth causing extreme damage to the flora and fauna on ground. This phenomenon has been touched in Soorah 23:18, where Allah has stated that water is made to descend from the sky in measures.

-Similarly rain drops do not attain bigger size and fall on Earth very smoothly. This is the result of lowering of speed by atmospheric friction which causes parachute like effect. Otherwise, huge cloud burst would have caused damage to life on Earth particularly to soil in the form fertile soil erosion making it less productive.

-The reference to revival of parched land with rainfall points to a process which is the basis of soil fertility and key factor in raising of crops and thus responsible for sustenance of life on Earth. The soil when dry looks barren and dead. When there is rainfall or water is applied, intense activity starts in the soil. There are billions of microorganisms present in dormant condition which get vitalized and start their activities. They break down organic matter present in the soil to form humus which contains nutrients for the plants. The soil bacteria initiate chemical reactions which transform nutrients applied in the form of chemical fertilizers and minerals present in the soil to transform them from their complex composition to simpler forms which can taken up by plant roots in the water solution. The plants thus get nutrition and start growth to ultimately produce forage, grains, vegetables or other consumable produce. Allah has pointed to this phenomenon to argue with humans being that if He can revive dead lands, why He cannot resurrect the dead on the Day of Judgment. Science now recognizes that DNA of dead bodies remains in the soil. By Allah command the activity of DNA will be revived and the dead can be revived for reconstruction of the bodies.

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