By: Zia Mahmood Minhas

-The Solar System


-What Qur’an Says on Sun and Moon


The Solar system

The mean distance of the Sun from the Earth is approximately 149.6 million kilometers, though the distance varies as the Earth moves in its orbit around the Sun. At this average distance, light travels from the Sun to Earth in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds. The Sun is at a distance of the Galaxy by 2/3rd of radius of the Galaxy. The energy of this Sunlight supports almost all life on Earth by photosynthesis, and drives Earth’s climate and weather.


The enormous effect of the Sun on the Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times, and the Sun has been regarded by some cultures as a deity. An accurate scientific understanding of the Sun developed slowly, and as recently as the 19th century prominent scientists had little knowledge of the Sun’s physical composition and source of energy. This understanding is still developing; there are a number of present-day anomalies in the Sun’s behavior that remain unexplained.

 The Solar System consists of 8 planets and each has its Moons. The names of major planets are given below in order of  its orbit from Sun.

1.Mercury 2.Venus 3.Earth 4.Mars 5.Jupiter 6.Saturn 7.Uranus 8.Neptune

The Solar System has 176 known planetary satellites (Moons) including the one orbiting our Earth.

Up to few years back Pluto was considered to be ninth planet but was struck off from the list being too small and a mass of ice only and is now bracketed with other smaller dwarf planets namely Ceres, Haum ea, Makemake and Eris.

What Qur’an Says on Sun and Moon?

The Sun and Moon have been mentioned in several verses of Qur’an:

(تَبَارَ‌كَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ فِي السَّمَاءِ بُرُ‌وجًا وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا سِرَ‌اجًا وَقَمَرً‌ا مُّنِيرً‌ا ﴿٦١

Blessed is He who set up constellations in the sky, and fixed there-in a great lamp and bright Moon.                                                                                                                                                   (Soorah Al- Furqan 25: 61)

(وَبَنَيْنَا فَوْقَكُمْ سَبْعًا شِدَادًا ﴿١٢﴾ وَجَعَلْنَا سِرَ‌اجًا وَهَّاجًا ﴿١٣

Did We not build above you seven tight–knit Heavens, and fixed a dazzling lantern.

(Soorah An-Naba 78:12 -13)

هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ ضِيَاءً وَالْقَمَرَ‌ نُورً‌ا

He it is who made the sun a shining splendor and the moon bright.

(Soorah Younis 10:5)

(وَالشَّمْسُ تَجْرِ‌ي لِمُسْتَقَرٍّ‌ لَّهَا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ‌ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ ﴿٣٨﴾ وَالْقَمَرَ‌ قَدَّرْ‌نَاهُ مَنَازِلَ حَتَّىٰ عَادَ كَالْعُرْ‌جُونِ الْقَدِيمِ ﴿٣٩

(لَا الشَّمْسُ يَنبَغِي لَهَا أَن تُدْرِ‌كَ الْقَمَرَ‌ وَلَا اللَّيْلُ سَابِقُ النَّهَارِ‌ ۚ وَكُلٌّ فِي فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ ﴿٤٠


And the sun runs its own course; unchanging .That is the decree of the Almighty, the all-Knowing. And the moon we have measured for its mansions (To traverse) till it returns like the old dried curved date stalk. It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, or the night out-strips the day. They all float in their orbits.

(Soorah Ya Sin 36:38-40)


وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ‌ وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ 

(كُلٌّ فِي فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ ﴿٣٣

It is He who created the night and day the sun and moon each in its orbit floating.

(Soorah Al-Anbiya 21:33)




وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ اللَّيْلُ وَالنَّهَارُ‌ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ‌ ۚ لَا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ

وَلَا لِلْقَمَرِ‌ وَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّـهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَهُنَّ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ)٣٧

And from among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and moon. Prostrate yourselves neither before the sun nor before the moon, but prostrate yourselves before Allah who created them, if you (really) worship Him.

(Soorah Fussilat 41:37)

(فَالِقُ الْإِصْبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ اللَّيْلَ سَكَنًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ‌ حُسْبَانًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ‌ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ ﴿٩٦

The sun and moon for reckoning. This is measuring of the Almighty, the Wise.

(Soorah Al-An’am 6:96)

In the light of these verses following phenomena emerge clearly:-

-A distinction has been made between the light of Sun and Moon. While the Sun has been described as ‘Siraj’,’Siraj-un-Wahja’and’ Diya’ (A Blazing Lantern/shining splendor) meaning thereby it generates extreme light and heat. For Moon the word ‘Muneer’ (Luminous) has been used. More over the light of Sun has been mentioned first followed by the mention of light of the Moon indicating that it reflects light received from another celestial body. The verse implies that Sun is a blazing /burning body while Moon is a cool celestial object which obtains light from the Sun.

-The extreme heat (thermal energy) is produced by nuclear fusion whereby Hydrogen is converted into Helium. The Sun releases energy at the mass conversion rate of 4.26 million metric tons per second. This process has been expressed in Qur’an by terming the Sun as ‘Siraj-un-Wahaja (A Blazing Lamp).

-There is clear mention of orbits of Sun and Moon (36:38-40) which is in conformity with the scientific evidence of movement of celestial bodies. The Moon moves at a speed of 18 kilometers while the speed of Sun is 12 kilometers per second. With slower speed the Sun cannot overtake Moon. These movements are very precise and smooth so as to preserve their orbits, speed and position. This is highly sophisticated system overseen by Allah to keep orderliness.

-The Sun orbits the centre of Galaxy Milky way at a distance of 24000-26000 light years completing its revolution in 220-250 million years.

-Allah has ordered the human beings to worship only Him not the Sun or Moon since these bodies have been created by Him and hence no worth as such to be treated as deities.